Peer reviewed journals have long served as the standard for academic inquiry, but the process has its problems. Some academics point to an encroaching politicization that may be affecting the process; still others suggest that peer review contributes to groupthink or a tendency to avoid originality for safe results. Yet, despite highly publicized scandals involving peer review, such as the recent falsification of data by Michael LaCour, or the acceptance of a deliberately nonsensical paper written by Alan Sokal in 1996, many academics believe the system works in general. The Pope Center asked four distinguished academics who have been involved with the peer review process as editors, participants, or critics for their opinions. Their responses are here.