That’s the title of a National Bureau of Economic Research working paper by David J. Deming, Justine S. Hastings, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger. The paper was eventually published in the American Economic Review. The abstract:

We study the impact of a public school choice lottery in Charlotte-Mecklenburg schools on college enrollment and degree completion. We find a significant overall increase in college attainment among lottery winners who attend their first choice school. Using rich administrative data on peers, teachers, course offerings and other inputs, we show that the impacts of choice are strongly predicted by gains on several measures of school quality. Gains in attainment are concentrated among girls. Girls respond to attending a better school with higher grades and increases in college-preparatory course-taking, while boys do not.

H/t: JMH