In January 2021, a state commission recommended that the North Carolina Department of Transportation’s (NCDOT) budget be increased by a behemoth 40%. The recommendation generates critical questions that must be answered before policymakers can make informed decisions. For example, how effectively is the department deploying its current annual $5 billion budget? Are the department’s priorities in line with passenger use and demand? How should fuel-efficient vehicles impact our choices? How do we keep traffic moving and reduce congestion? Are we funding construction and maintenance appropriately? To that end, the John Locke Foundation commissioned nationally-known transportation expert Randal O’Toole of the Cato Institute to perform a review of the NCDOT’s programs, priorities, and future plans. This report is the product of that review, accompanied by O’Toole’s recommendations for reforming NCDOT’s priorities with an eye toward safe, cost-effective, and equitable transportation for every North Carolinian.